Range Description: Within the European region this species is widespread, but with scattered, fragmented and sometimes very small populations, across the. Anagyris foetida – botanical illustrations (3 F) Flor de fesol moro (Anagyris foetida) Canèssia Vall de 1, × 1,; KB. Taxonomy. Superdivision: Spermatophyta. Division: Angiospermae. Class: Dicotyledoneae. Family: Papilionaceae. Genus: Anagyris.
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Leguminosaean autumn—winter flowering and ornithophilous Mediterranean shrub, Botanical Journal of the Linnean SocietyVolumeIssue 3, 1 JulyPages —, https: As most plants of the Mediterranean region bloom in spring, there have been few studies of anaghris reproductive biology of species with autumn—winter flowering.
In this study, we investigate the breeding system of Anagyris foetidaone of the few shrubs that blooms at this time.
The floral, phenological, and reproductive aspects of two foetjda of this Mediterranean legume from south-west Spain were studied via field and laboratory experiments. The variability of fruit and seeds was studied in another 12 Iberian populations with respect to certain meteorological parameters temperature and rainfall.
Anagyris foetida shows cauliflory, marked floral longevity, and adichogamy. The peak of flowering is in January—February. It is self-compatible, with no clear advantage of cross- anagyrid self-pollination, and with virtually no autonomous self-pollination.
This is because the stigma, like some other legumes, prevents the germination of pollen if its surface is not ruptured by pollinators. The number of seeds per fruit under natural pollination was positively correlated with the total rainfall during the fruiting period from January to Mayand significantly influenced the percentage of fruit weight represented by the pericarp, in the sense that the smaller the number of viable seeds in the fruit, the greater the percentage of foetiva weight.
Most angiosperms of the Mediterranean region are pollinated by insects; spring is naagyris most important time for flowering, and the time with most insect pollinators. Geophytes are especially abundant in autumn Dafni,and a few shrubby species flower in the winter. One example of an autumn—winter flowering species is Anagyris foetida L.
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Although the Leguminosae family, with c. Given the rigours of the Mediterranean winter, the study of the reproductive biology of A.
Under intermittent or perpetually unfavourable environmental conditions for example, those existing in winter in temperate climatesinsects are not usually available, but other pollinators, such as birds, will be less influenced by the weather conditions.
In populations of Loranthus acaciae Zucc. The focus of the present work is the study of the reproductive biology of A. In the Iberian Peninsula, this species is uncommon at best, with only a small number of populations, most with a few individuals.
As in other zones of the world, in the Mediterranean region, plant—pollinator relationships are subject to the pressure of interference from humans, in particular, habitat fragmentation and isolation, changes in the use of the soil, fire, biological invasions, and climatic change. General distribution of Anagyris foetida based on information taken from various floras, with dots indicating exact populations, and location of the studied populations in the Iberian Peninsula.
The study of the reproductive biology of A. This is especially so given the fragmented nature of the area of distribution of this species and its low density of individuals per population, at least in the Iberian Peninsula. Specifically, the main objectives of this study were as follows: Objectives 1 — 3 were studied in two populations in south-west Spain Extremadura for 3 years. The last objective was studied in both populations and compared over 4 years with another 12 Iberian populations, distant from ours, to check for the possible existence of interpopulation variation.
Anagyris foetida flowers are papilionaceous, pendulous, odourless, green-yellowish when young, and yellow when old. The flowers are presented in small racemes Paiva, The standard is smaller than the wing petals and the keel. The androecium is formed by ten free stamens with dimorphic anthers, and the gynoecium, with 7—11 ovules, is located on a stipe at the base of a small hypanthium where the floral nectar accumulates.
The nectar, very dilute, is hexose rich or dominant Ortega-Olivencia et al. Legumes and seeds mature during the summer. Most of the experiments were carried out in two natural populations, 5 km apart, situated in the locality of Olivenza, c. During these seasons, frequent dense fog banks form that can remain all day. The population consists of c. Population 2 La Sancha is on practically level terrain at — m a.
La Sancha has c. Both populations have a Mediterranean climate characterized by rainy, cool winters and dry, hot summers Ortega-Olivencia et al. The variability in natural fruit and seed set was studied during the summers of — in populations 1 and 2 and in another 12 Iberian populations see Fig. In the period —, 20 individuals per population were selected to determine the mean number of flower branches.
Of these branches, three were selected per individual, and the number of inflorescences per branch was counted. Their product gave an estimate of the mean number of inflorescences per individual. This value multiplied by the mean number of flowers per inflorescence gave an estimate of the number of flowers per individual in the flowering period.
We also obtained the number of flowers open at any given time per inflorescence and an estimate of their longevity by the daily monitoring of tagged flowers in population 1.
During the autumn—winter of —, the variability of pollen germination was determined amongst individuals of A. Four phases were distinguished: Pollen viability was only determined in phases I—IV. The presence of dehiscent anthers in the flower bud could indicate the existence of protandry in this species and, to check this, it was necessary to determine the period in the life of the flower in which the pollen was viable and the stigma receptive.
In the mid— flowering period of population 1, 60 preanthesis flowers per individual at the same stage of development Phase I were selected and bagged from each of five individuals. Every day four flowers were emasculated; the stamens of two were collected and their pollen was tested for germination in the laboratory.
After 24 h, the flowers were dissected and the style—stigma mounted on a drop of lactophenol blue on a microscope slide. The pollen load and number of germinated pollen grains on the stigma were quantified with the aid of a grating on one of the microscope eyepieces and a manual counter. Fietida November30 flowers in phase I in each of five individuals of population 1 were selected, emasculated, tagged, and bagged.
Two days later, when the flowers were receptive and presented nectar, they were hand pollinated with pollen taken from the flowers of five different individuals after gently rubbing the stigma with a fine brush; they were tagged and rebagged. On the four subsequent days, three flowers per individual were collected at The style was divided foefida into two, and all the ovules were extracted from the ovary. Both types of sample were studied by fluorescence microscopy, counting the number of ovules penetrated.
The remaining flowers c.
During the — and — flowering seasons, four branches of about the same size were selected and tagged on each of ten individuals of populations 1 and 2. The open flowers were counted weekly until the end of the flowering period. These flowers were marked on the pedicel with plastic paint to avoid the duplication of data in subsequent counts. The degree of individual synchrony was determined using the coefficient of Augspurgeradapted to weeks the sampling frequency used in foetidaa present work instead of the original days.
The value of X i can range from zero to unity, with unity representing maximum synchrony. Again, Z ranges between zero and unity, with unity representing maximum synchrony. During the two flowering seasons — and —, four treatments were conducted with populations 1 and 2: For each treatment, three branches per individual from each fowtida ten individuals per population were selected and tagged, marking the pedicel of the flowers with plastic paint in each treatment which involved foetixa manipulation A, HSP, and HCP.
Treatment A consisted of the emasculation of 20 flower buds per branch with non-dehiscent anthers total of flowers, only in season — In the SSP treatment, the flowering branches were bagged, without flower manipulation total of flowers in season — and 15 in — In the HSP treatment, flower buds with non-dehiscent anthers were emasculated, tagged, and bagged ofetida of flowers in — and flowers in — Several days later, when the flowers reached anthesis, they were hand pollinated by brushing qnagyris onto the stigma with a fine brush.
During this process, the stigma surface was gently ruptured and, after self-pollination, the flowers were tagged and bagged for at least 2 weeks. In the HCP treatment, the procedure was similar, but pollination was carried out with pollen from plants from a distance of anagyrie than 5 m from the receptor plant total of flowers in — and flowers in — Finally, in the control individuals, the flowers of the selected and tagged branches anayyris not subjected to any manipulation flowers in — and in — The fruits were collected when mature and conserved in opaque xnagyris.
To study the possible existence of spatial and temporal variation in the number of seeds per fruit and in the weight of fostida seeds during the summer—autumn of,andmature fruit was collected from at least ten non-manipulated individuals in populations 1 and 2 Extremaduraand in other localities in Portugal Elvas and south and east Spain six from Andalusia and five from the Valencian Community see Fig. Counts were made of the number of seeds per fruit, and the weight of each seed was determined individually on a precision scale.
These variables were correlated with the meteorological parameters mean temperature and rainfall during the fruiting period January—May.
To investigate the relationship between the previously studied variables seed number and anqgyris and the weight of foetidx fruit, a random sample was taken of at least 40 fruit from population 1 and from one of the Andalusian populations Ma1 duringand from populations 1 and 2 aagyris In each fruit, the weight of the pericarp was determined as the difference between the weight of the fruit and the sum of the weights of all the seeds in the fruit. Statistical analyses were carried out using the software package SPSS version The normality of the variables was determined using the non-parametric Kolmogorov—Smirnov test with Lilliefors correction, and homoskedasticity using Levene’s test.
Comparison of means was performed by one-way analysis of variance ANOVA if the variables were normal or normalizable, using the Brown—Forsythe correction when the data were heteroskedastic; in certain cases, nested ANOVAs were used with anagyeis nested in year and both in populations. Apparent differences between means were analysed using Tukey’s honestly significant difference HSD test.
Anagyris foetida L. — The Plant List
Finally, foetid between some variables were analysed using the Pearson correlation coefficient for normal variables and the Spearman rank test otherwise.
The racemose inflorescences are axillary or borne directly from the fortida. The flowers are grouped in these racemes in whorls of three on a triquetrous axis i.
The most common racemes are axillary, bear 9—12 flowers very roetida twoand are located in the terminal third of the branches. However, those that are borne from the trunk include more flowers, sometimes reaching up to The mean number of flowers in axillary racemes is In each raceme, fowtida three flowers are usually found open at the same time, and the moment of opening between them is deferred for 1 or 2 days according to the environmental conditions.
The duration of the flowers is variable, depending on the prevailing meteorological conditions and on whether or not they have been pollinated. Generally, the flowers remain open for between 10 and 14 days if they are not visited and for 6—8 10 days if they have been pollinated. The pollen germination percentage differed significantly between individuals i.
Throughout the life of the flower, the greatest pollen germination percentage appeared on the first day a flower was fully open beginning of phase III; see Fig.
The reason for the decline on day 2 is that no distinction was made between stamen whorls, and most of the grains in the samples of that day would have belonged to the first anthers to open whose pollen would already have lost considerable viability.
The y axis marks anagyrks beginning of anthesis. This low percentage of germination in the flowers without tripping indicates that an external agent is necessary for the pollen to germinate on the stigma. The stigma of the flowers with tripping— that presented germination Fig. On the first day of anthesis, there was no germination in any of the flowers, probably because of torrential rain on the previous day.