A grammar of the Hurrian language. Front Cover. Frederic William Bush. Brandeis University., – Hurrian language – pages. Dennis R. M. Campbell , Mood and Modality in Hurrian, , Frederic W. Bush , A Grammar of the Hurrian Language, , , grammar · hh. Hurrian language, extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium bce until at least the latter years of the Hittite empire (c. –c.

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The following table outlines the case endings the terms used for some of the more obscure cases vary between different authors. For the subject of a transitive verb, however, the ergative case is used. The pronoun has the function of the absolutive in the relative clause, and so represents an intransitive subject or a transitive object.

Not long after these events, Hurrian power declined rapidly. The noun, which is represented by the relative clause, can take any case, but hurian the relative clause can only have the function of the absolutive, i. All Hurrian nouns end in a vowel. Despite the general agglutinative structure of the language, the plural marker 5 merges with the case morphemes 6 in gramnar which do not seem to be entirely predictable, so singular and plural forms hurriab the case endings are usually listed separately.

Another, separate, -t suffix is found in all tenses in transitive sentences — it indicates a 3rd person plural subject. These elements are not all obligatory, and in fact a noun can occur as a single root followed by nothing except zero-suffixes for case and number.

Contact our editors with your feedback. Tense markers are unchanged in the optative. The so-called essive case can convey the meaning “as” and a condition, but also to express direction, the aim of a demand, the transition from one condition to another, the direct object in antipassive constructions where the transitive subject receives the absolutive case instead of the ergativeand, in the variety of Nuzialso the dative.

To express nuances of grammatical moodseveral special verb forms are used, which are derived from the indicative non-modal forms. The Hurrian possessive pronouns cannot occur independently, but are only enclitic. In the following century, attacks by the Sea Peoples brought a swift end to the last vestiges of the Hurrian language. The second nominalised participle, the perfect participle, is formed with the hrammar -aureand is only attested once, in Nuzi: The long geminate consonants occur only between vowels.


During the fifteenth century BC there was a struggle with Egypt over control of Syria, but shortly after BC, Hurrians and Egyptians made a peace treaty, and nurrian were dynastic marriages.

A grammar of the Hurrian language – Frederic William Bush – Google Books

The only language close to Hurrian hhurrian Urartian, once spoken in what is now the extreme east of Turkey. The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor. The Hurrian language was written during a year period. In the third person, when the suffix -wa occurs before the subject marker, it can be replaced by -maalso expressing the negative: Vowels, just hirrian consonants, can be either long or short.

There was also a Hurrian-Akkadian creole, called Nuzispoken in the Mitanni provincial capital of Arrapha. The negative suffixes 7the ergative person suffixes 8and the ergative number suffixes 9 merge in ways which are not entirely predictable, so the person endings are usually listed in separate singular and plural versions.

At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. The third possibility is for both these markers to occur see example 16 below.

The meanings of many such suffixes have yet to be decoded. Further information on the Hurrians is given on the Wikipedia website. Speiser published the first comprehensive grammar of Hurrian.

After these endings come the vowel of transitivity. It is -a when the verb is intransitive, -i when the verb is in the antipassive and -o in the Mitanni letter, -i in transitive verbs.

Quantum mechanics, science dealing with the behaviour of matter and light on the atomic and subatomic…. Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone. As with the noun, not all of these elements must be present in each verb form, and indeed some of them are mutually incompatible. It is around this time that other languages, such as the Hittite language and the Ugaritic language also became extinct, in what is known as the Bronze Age collapse. Before the middle of the 2nd millennium bceparts of Hurrian territory were under the control of an Indo-Aryan ruling class, the Mitanniwhose name was incorrectly applied to the Hurrians by early researchers.


Adjectives, numbers, and genitive modifiers come before the noun they modify. Please try again later. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia and was likely spoken at least initially hurrain Hurrian settlements in modern-day Syria. In Hurrian, the function of the so-called ” article ” is not entirely clear, inasmuch as its use does not seem to resemble closely a typical definite article.

The table below outlines the possible forms:. My library Help Advanced Book Search. For example case markers grammar than one may be attached to a noun, and various grammatical markers are attached to a verb. Texts in Urartian date to a year period from the ninth century until shortly before BC.

Hurrian language

The verb comes at the end of the clause, and there seems to have been a rich inventory of different moods for the verb, not all well understood. The attested Hurrian lexicon is quite homogenous, containing only a small number of loanwords e. Sumerian, grxmmar Hurrian, and seven different scripts were used in Ugarit in this period: There are also the relative pronouns iya and iye.

The “morpheme chain” of the verb is as follows: Hurrian has two numbers, singular and plural. The later Urartian language is thought to be descended from the same parent language as Hurrian.

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