Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic Apparatus. Jean-Louis Baudry, Alan Williams. FILM QUART, Vol. 28 No. 2, Winter, ; (pp. ) DOI. Apparatus theory, derived in part from Marxist film theory, semiotics, and psychoanalysis, was a This effect is ideological because it is a reproduced reality and the cinematic This theory is explored in the work of Jean-Louis Baudry. This is. Jean-Louis Baudry, ‘Ideological Effects of the Basic Cinematographic. Apparatus’, Film Quarterly, 28 (Winter –75), (reprinted in Movies. & Methods.

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The conception of space which conditions the construction of perspective in the Renaissance differs from that of the Greeks. The multiplicity of aspects of the object in view refers to a synthesizing operation, to the unity of this constituting subject: Philosophically it asserts that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.

Apparatus theory

This page was last edited on 19 Novemberat Note the similarity between this and the constructed image on screen.


The body is the most important and the first of these objects. The ability to reconstitute movement is after all only a partial, elementary aspect of a more gen- eral capability.

Ideology is not imposed on cinema, but is part of its nature and it shapes the way the audience thinks. Increasingly films are being edited with non-linear editing programs, which require the analog film stock to be digitized so that the film can be edited on computers. Film derives meaning from the subject. We must first establish the place of the in- strumental base in the set of operations which combine in the production of a film we omit consideration of economic implications.


The relationship between the camera and the subject. The image seems to reflect the world but solely in the naive inversion of a founding hierarchy: In which case, concealment of the technical base will also bring about a specific ideological effect.

Engaging the Moving Image. Apparatus theory follows an institutional model of spectatorship. Its inscription, its manifestation as such, on the other hand, would produce a knowledge effect, as actualization of the work process, as denunciation of ideology, and as a critique of idealism.

Celluloid-based photography would go on to serve as the material basis for most modern films. This is where the Marxist aspect of the theory comes into play. Baudry moves on to how he believes the subject is so able to become consciously enmeshed in the film. This might permit the supposi- tion, especially because the camera moves, of a multiplicity of points of view which would neutralize the fixed position of the eye-subject and even nullify it.

Baudry then discusses the necessity of transcendence which he will touch upon more later in his essay. But only on one condition can these differences create this illusion: He goes on to say that because movie-goers are not distracted by outside light, noise, etc. It consists of individual frames, separate, however minutely, from each other in image.

As the camera follows the arc of a ball flying through the air, the frame itself mimics this arc, becomes an arc itself. If the latter, consumption of the product will obviously be accompanied by ideological surplus value. In this sense it contributes in a singularly emphatic way to the ideological function of art, which is to provide the tangible representation of meta- physics.


We would like to establish for the cinema a few guidelines which will need to be completed, verified, improved.

But already a question: It is easy to think of photography as the antecedent to film; that the relationship between the two is natural or evolutionary. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. But the movement and continuity are the visible expression one might even say the projection of their relations, derived from the tiny discontinuities between the images.

Winter,pp. Baudry begins by describing how when a camera follows a trajectory, it becomes trajectory, seizes a moment, becomes a moment.

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The dimensions of the image itself, the ratio between height and width, seem clearly taken from an iedological drawn from Western easel painting. It is an initiative of JSTOR, a not-for-profit organization with a mission to help the scholarly community take advantage of advances in technology.

But also, and paradoxically, the optical appa- ratus camera obscura will serve in the same period to elaborate in pictorial work a new mode of representation, perspectiva artificalis. The camera needs to seize the subject in a mode of specular reflection. We refer here to what Lacan idsological of identifications in liaison with the structure determined by an optical instrument the eftectsas they are constituted, in the prevailing figuration of the ego, as lines of resistance to the advance of the analytic work.